Analytical chemistry, along with qualitative, quantitative, structural and process analyses, play a considerable scientific and practical role. They greatly contribute to the development of many fields of science, especially the natural and technical sciences. It is an indispensable tool for controlling and optimising many processes. But most of all, it delivers useful information about the tested materials.
Analytical chemistry is a highly interdisciplinary field of science which combines issues from such areas as chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology or engineering. It involves exploring, establishing and developing analytical rights, methods and techniques aimed at answering the query on the qualitative and quantitative composition of the tangible object under test with the assumed precision and accuracy.
The tool used to acquire information about the analysed material is the chemical analysis. This term directly refers to the practical use of analytical chemistry at research centres and chemical laboratories by applying appropriate analytical methods.
Analytical chemistry is an important pillar that allows us to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the object and thus establish its characteristics. It is co-responsible for the quality of the chemicals used in many areas of economy. Chemical analysis can be classified into four principal areas:
Analytical chemistry is largely involved in developing and validating analytical methods to effectively detect the desired substances in various matrices and with the assumed accuracy. In order for the analytical chemistry to be effective, it is important to properly plan and execute each stage of the analytical procedure.
Sampling is the most important stage in the entire process of determining the analyte. The tested material should be sampled in a representative manner, so that it refers to the properties of the whole product. Any errors made at this stage are irreversible and bring about a result that is inaccurate.
Preparing samples for analysis – this is aimed at separating, where required, the determined component from the matrix which, especially for biological samples, is complex and disturbs the analytical measurement. At this stage, in addition to removing the interferents, we also derivatise the analytes. This consists in converting the determined component into a form that has properties appropriate for the analytical method applied.
Measuring – during measurement, we use the appropriate method to measure a specific physico-chemical characteristic. By measurement we obtain an analytical signal. The measuring technique should be selected in such a way to determine the analyte with a sufficient accuracy, precision and sensitivity.
Processing and interpreting results – today most analytical instruments are linked with computer systems, so the signal received during analysis and then transformed is presented in the form of, say, concentration. However, some measurements should be properly converted in order to determine the final result. The final result is a substantive and statistical assessment of the acquired information.
Qualitative analysis provides an answer to the question about the compounds contained in the test material. Its role is usually to detect individual elements or ions composing the sample. It constitutes an important tool, particularly for materials whose chemical structure is unknown. Qualitative analysis is of great importance, as the choice of further chemical procedure depends on the outcomes it produces. Qualitative determination consists in converting individual analytes by a chemical reaction into new compounds whose properties we know (such as the colour, solubility, etc.). The separation is carried out by analysing cations and separately anions. Additionally, cations are divided into five, and anions into seven, analysis groups. Qualitative analysis is also applied to salts, metal alloys, minerals and functional groups.
This involves quantitative determination of the content of elements and ions that were previously detected on a qualitative basis. Quantitative analysis can be divided into chemical analysis, instrumental analysis and trace analysis. Conventional methods are based on the measurement of mass or volume of the ingredient. Mass is measured by weight analysis, electrogravimetric analysis and certain methods of gas analysis. Volume measurement is mostly used in titration methods (such as pH-metric, potentiometric, spectrophotometric or radiometric titration). Research and commercial laboratories particularly often use instrumental analyses. They consist in measuring a variable physico-chemical property that is proportional to the concentration of the ingredient. Trace analysis is based on measuring the content of the ingredient at an extremely low concentration level. It includes special procedures of sampling, concentrating and measuring the measurand.
It is based on determining the structure of chemical molecules. With structural analysis, we can establish the atomic composition of compounds, that is, how many compounds there are, what they are like, and how they interconnect. This is an area of analytical chemistry that is applied particularly by scientific entities. The information acquired in structural analysis extends our knowledge about the structure of many chemical compounds.
Chemische reagentia, pH-reagentia, kwalitatieve analyse, kwantitatieve analyse – dit zijn slechts enkele van de termen die verband houden met analytische chemie. Wat is er nog meer verborgen in dit gebied van de chemie? De antwoorden op deze vraag vind je in deze rubriek!
In deze rubriek vindt u alle informatie over de basischemie maar ook nieuws uit de wereld van de chemie. Wat is het periodiek systeem? Wie ontdekte radioactieve elementen? Hier vindt u antwoorden op deze en vele andere vragen!
Zuren, hydroxiden of zouten zijn slechts enkele van de verbindingen die deel uitmaken van de anorganische groep. Wat verbergt de anorganische chemie nog meer? Welke concepten zijn gerelateerd aan dit gebied van de chemie? Informatie over deze onderwerpen vind je in deze rubriek!
De kwesties van kernreacties of radioactief verval behoren tot de basisprincipes die elke chemicus zou moeten kennen. Nucleaire chemie is echter een enorm gebied dat veel interessante feiten verbergt. Dankzij deze sectie leer je meer over zijn geheimen!
Welke chemische verbindingen kunnen we organisch noemen? Welke reacties ondergaan ze en waar kunnen we ze vinden? Welke organische verbindingen zijn verborgen in het menselijk lichaam? Zoek naar antwoorden op deze en andere vragen in deze sectie!
Elektrochemie, thermodynamica, faseovergangschemie – het zijn slechts enkele van de onderwerpen die in de fysische chemie aan bod komen, maar geen enkele scheikundestudent wil ze aan zich voorbij laten gaan. Wil je ze beter leren kennen? De artikelen die u in deze sectie vindt, zullen u helpen!
Vind je plek bij de PCC Group. Maak kennis met ons aanbod en blijf samen met ons ontwikkelen.
Onbetaalde zomerstages voor studenten en afgestudeerden van alle opleidingen.