Chemistry is a science of obtaining and exploring various properties, structures and chemical interactions of elements and their combinations. Essentially, chemistry is divided into organic chemistry, which explores carbon bonds due to their large number and specificity, and inorganic chemistry, which explores the bonds of all other elements and a small fraction of carbon bonds, with the exception of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. The term “chemical substance” is used for both inorganic compounds, i.e. those that do not contain carbon in a form other than cyanide, isocyanide, thiocyanide, cyanate, thiocyanate, carbonate, bicarbonate, carbon oxides and carbides, as well as all kinds of metal ores, minerals, metals and their alloys. Besides its links with physics, inorganic chemistry is also interrelated with other sciences, such as mineralogy, geology, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, and with many branches of applied science, e.g. inorganic chemical technology, metallurgy and ceramics. In terms of conducted research, inorganic chemistry can be divided into many different specialities, e.g. practical inorganic chemistry deals with obtaining new compounds, inorganic chemical technology focuses on the process of large-scale manufacturing of inorganic compounds and analytical inorganic chemistry aims at exploring structures of interest in terms of quality and quantity. Important questions in inorganic chemistry include also kinetics of chemical reactions, mineralogy and physical chemistry.
Over the years, interest in chemistry has grown and become more targeted. Initially, in the 18th century, inorganic chemistry in practice boiled down to the exploration of combustion processes. In the 19th century, research began on readily available elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen and aluminium. Currently, constantly improved research techniques allow to even isolate and purify rare elements considered for applications in various fields of technology. This is due to more and more data obtained about such elements as gallium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, beryllium, titanium and their compounds. Due to the discovery of radioactivity and radioactive transformations, it was possible to extend the scope of chemical research to elements with unstable nuclei. Other disciplines of inorganic chemistry, such as crystallography and solid state chemistry as a whole, are also gaining importance.
Physical and chemical tests are usually used to classify a substance in terms of its structure. These include:
It is a field of science allowing to visualise and understand the physical and chemical transformations of matter along with the associated energy flows. The fundamental method used during research is the creation of theoretical mathematical and physical models based on experimental observations. A model is a mechanism used to reflect, in the simplest possible way, the most important features of the considered object or phenomenon. Physical chemistry involves creation of hypotheses, theories and laws of nature in relation to its subject. The main issues of this chemistry branch are: thermodynamics, chemical equilibria, phase equilibria, thermodynamic characteristics of solutions, electrochemistry, surface phenomena and colloids, chemical kinetics and the basics of quantum chemistry.
This is a very important field of theoretical chemistry. It allows to understand the interactions between atoms and molecules, as well as the chemical processes between them. Thanks to the use of quantum mechanics, many parameters can be determined, including the energy of chemical bonds, angles between atoms, magnetic moments and ionizing potentials. This field of chemistry was started in 1927 when three scientists, E.U. Condon, W. Heitler and F. London, began research to explain the bonds in a diatomic hydrogen molecule. In Poland, Włodzimierz Kołos, who worked on the same phenomenon, also contributed to the development of quantum chemistry. His calculations of the dissociation energy of a hydrogen molecule turned out to be more accurate than spectroscopic methods.
This is a branch of physical chemistry exploring the rate of chemical reactions using experimental and theoretical analysis. In order to define the kinetic equation for a reaction, experimental data on the relation between the concentration of reactants and the rate of reaction is necessary. In addition, kinetics deals with the determination of the effect of various variables, such as catalysts or temperature change, on the rate of a chemical reaction. Having the necessary experimental data, researchers perform theoretical analysis, which allows to determine the stoichiometry and then to select the appropriate rate equation.
It is a branch of chemistry that studies qualitative and quantitative composition of substances. For this purpose, a number of classic methods are used, such as gravimetric methods and classic titration using indicators, as well as constantly developing physical and chemical methods, also known as instrumental analyses. All these are tests that require the use of appropriate equipment, e.g. chromatographic techniques, spectral analysis or electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and potentiometry.
Depending on the substance, inorganic chemicals have a number of applications in almost every industry, as well as in everyday life. To give an example:
Chemische reagentia, pH-reagentia, kwalitatieve analyse, kwantitatieve analyse – dit zijn slechts enkele van de termen die verband houden met analytische chemie. Wat is er nog meer verborgen in dit gebied van de chemie? De antwoorden op deze vraag vind je in deze rubriek!
In deze rubriek vindt u alle informatie over de basischemie maar ook nieuws uit de wereld van de chemie. Wat is het periodiek systeem? Wie ontdekte radioactieve elementen? Hier vindt u antwoorden op deze en vele andere vragen!
Zuren, hydroxiden of zouten zijn slechts enkele van de verbindingen die deel uitmaken van de anorganische groep. Wat verbergt de anorganische chemie nog meer? Welke concepten zijn gerelateerd aan dit gebied van de chemie? Informatie over deze onderwerpen vind je in deze rubriek!
De kwesties van kernreacties of radioactief verval behoren tot de basisprincipes die elke chemicus zou moeten kennen. Nucleaire chemie is echter een enorm gebied dat veel interessante feiten verbergt. Dankzij deze sectie leer je meer over zijn geheimen!
Welke chemische verbindingen kunnen we organisch noemen? Welke reacties ondergaan ze en waar kunnen we ze vinden? Welke organische verbindingen zijn verborgen in het menselijk lichaam? Zoek naar antwoorden op deze en andere vragen in deze sectie!
Elektrochemie, thermodynamica, faseovergangschemie – het zijn slechts enkele van de onderwerpen die in de fysische chemie aan bod komen, maar geen enkele scheikundestudent wil ze aan zich voorbij laten gaan. Wil je ze beter leren kennen? De artikelen die u in deze sectie vindt, zullen u helpen!
Vind je plek bij de PCC Group. Maak kennis met ons aanbod en blijf samen met ons ontwikkelen.
Onbetaalde zomerstages voor studenten en afgestudeerden van alle opleidingen.