Purified hydrochloric acid is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas. It is a strongly corrosive liquid with a sharp, irritating odour and colour from colourless to light yellow. This product is delivered to the market in the form of liquid with a concentration of min. 31%. Hydrochloric acid (technical grade) is a by-product in the chlorobenzene chlorination process.
Technical grade hydrochloric acid is used mainly in less demanding industries. These include the production of agrochemicals, the regeneration of ion exchangers in the power industry, the regulation of the pH of water in industrial water treatment processes, as well as the production of industrial chemistry. Purified hydrochloric acid is also used in the production of descaling and disinfecting agents (household chemicals).
In the mining industry, it is used for extraction of ores, in the production of biofuels, oils and lubricants as well as in refining processes. In metalworking, hydrochloric acid is used for pickling steel, aluminium, titanium and magnesium, while in galvanizing processes – for cleaning metal surfaces.
Hydrochloric acid can be used as a degreasing agent on the leather surfaces in tanning, while in the textile industry it is used as a neutralizer of alkaline residues in the process of direct cleaning of cotton before bleaching.
In addition, it is used in the construction industry, in the production of chemicals in animal husbandry, in industrial cleaning and washing. It is also used in the production of lubricants and functional fluids, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, ferric chloride or epichlorohydrin. Hydrochloric acid combined with nitric acid creates Aqua regia ("royal water") – the strongest acid.
Markets and applications
Agrochemicals / Chemicals in animal husbandry
Metallurgical industry / Metal cleaning
Mining & Drilling / Metal mining
Raw materials and intermediates
Water & Wastewater treatment / Antiscalants, scale & corrosion inhibitors