Detergents are surfactants or mixtures thereof having cleaning and detergent properties.
Detergents have an amphiphilic structure, which means that they contain both hydrophilic (polar) and hydrophobic (non-polar) groups. This feature of detergents enables emulsification of greasy impurities in water and removing them from the surface of fabrics in the washing process. In addition, detergents moisten the fibres and produce a large amount of foam, which facilitates cleaning.
The washing process begins with mixing the detergent with water. Then the molecules of the surfactant attach themselves with their hydrophobic end to the dirt particles. As a result of the rotation of the drum in the washing machine and the movement of the fabrics, impurities are broken down into smaller particles, which are easier to remove. The next stage is rinsing when the grease is emulsified and removed with water during centrifugation, leaving the fabric clean.
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